Stawicki, P., & Volosyak, I. (2022). cVEP Training Data Validation—Towards Optimal Training Set Composition from Multi-Day Data. Brain Sciences, 12(2), 234.

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DOI: 10.3390/brainsci12020234


This paper investigates the effects of the repetitive block-wise training process on the classification accuracy for a code-modulated visual evoked potentials (cVEP)-based brain–computer interface (BCI). The cVEP-based BCIs are popular thanks to their autocorrelation feature. The cVEP-based stimuli are generated by a specific code pattern, usually the m-sequence, which is phase-shifted between the individual targets. Typically, the cVEP classification requires a subject-specific template (individually created from the user’s own pre-recorded EEG responses to the same stimulus target), which is compared to the incoming electroencephalography (EEG) data, using the correlation algorithms. The amount of the collected user training data determines the accuracy of the system. In this offline study, previously recorded EEG data collected during an online experiment with 10 participants from multiple sessions were used. A template matching target identification, with similar models as the task-related component analysis (TRCA), was used for target classification. The spatial filter was generated by the canonical correlation analysis (CCA). When comparing the training models from one session with the same session’s data (intra-session) and the model from one session with the data from the other session (inter-session), the accuracies were (94.84%, 94.53%) and (76.67%, 77.34%) for intra-sessions and inter-sessions, respectively. In order to investigate the most reliable configuration for accurate classification, the training data blocks from different sessions (days) were compared interchangeably. In the best training set composition, the participants achieved an average accuracy of 82.66% for models based only on two training blocks from two different sessions. Similarly, at least five blocks were necessary for the average accuracy to exceed 90%. The presented method can further improve cVEP-based BCI performance by reusing previously recorded training data.